中国华文教育网
中国境内最早的人类The Earliest Human Beings in China
2010年04月19日 17:03

山顶洞遗址


背景周口店猿人洞遗址


江苏南京北阴阳营出土的玉串饰(新石器时代)


元谋人牙齿

  中国是世界文明古国,也是人类的发源地之一。中国到目前为止是世界上发现旧石器时代的人类化石和文化遗址最多的国家,其中重要的有元谋人、蓝田人、北京人、山顶洞人等。 元谋人 1965年,在云南省元谋县,考古人员发现了两颗远古人类的牙齿和一些粗糙的石器。 经科学家鉴定,这是远古人类的遗骨、遗物,距今大约170万年。在元谋发现的远古人类我们称为元谋人。元谋人是中国境内目前发现的最早的人类。 北京人 1929年,在北京西南周口店龙骨山山洞里发现了远古人类的头盖骨,后来在这个遗址中又先后发现了五个头盖骨。在这里发现的远古人类我们称为北京人。北京人生活在距今约70万年至20万年,他们保留了猿的某些特点,但已经能够使用工具劳动。北京人把石块敲打成粗糙的石器,还把树枝砍成木棒,用来采集植物,捕捉动物,加工食物。北京人已经会使用天然火。火的使用是人类进化过程中的一个很大的进步。 山顶洞人 1930年,在北京西南周口店龙骨山顶部的山洞里,发现了距今约18,000年的人类遗骨。我们把他们称作山顶洞人。山顶洞人的模样和现代人基本一样。 山顶洞人用的还是打制石器,但有的制作很精细。他们已经懂得磨制和钻孔技术,会制造骨针等骨器,会用骨针缝制兽皮衣服,还会用有钻孔的兽骨、兽牙、石珠、海蚶(han)壳做装饰品。他们已懂得人工取火,靠采集植物、打猎、捕鱼得到食物。 山顶洞人按母亲的血缘关系组成氏族。同一氏族的成员居住在一起,共同劳动,共同分配食物。

  The Earliest Human Beings in China

  China is not only a country with an ancient civilization, it is also one of the birthplaces of the human race. China so far ranks first in the number of human fossils and cultural sites dating from the Paleolithic Period, among which there were traces of Yuanmou Man, Lantian Man, Peking Man and Upper Cave Man. Yuanmou Man In 1965, archeologists found two ancient human teeth and some rough stone tools in Yuanmou County, Yunnan Province. After examination, it was confirmed that they dated back some 1,700,000 years, making Yuanmou Man the earliest human found in China so far. Peking Man In 1929, human skulls were found in caves on Mount Longgu in Zhoukoudian, in southwest Beijing. Later, five more human skulls were found there. They were determined to be relics of Peking Man, who lived around 700,000 to 200,000 years ago. Peking man had some ape-like characteristics, but he mastered the arts of making and using tools. He chipped stones into rough implements and chopped tree branches into sticks to gather vegetation, hunt animals and process food. He also learned to use natural fire, which marks a milestone on human evolution. Upper Cave Man In 1930, human bones dating from about 18,000 years ago were found in caves near the top of Mount Longgu in Zhoukoudian. Upper Cave Man's appearance would have been almost the same as that of modern man. Upper Cave Man also used chipped stone tools, some of which were exquisitely made, and the tools show that he had already mastered grinding and drilling techniques. He made bone needles to sew animal skins to make clothing, and used animal bones and teeth, stone beads and shells as ornaments. He knew how to make fire, and got food from gathering, hunting and fishing. The Upper Cave people formed the matriarchal clans. Clan members lived together, worked together and shared their food.

【来源:中国华文教育网】