中国华文教育网
普通话和方言 Mandarin and Dialects
2009年09月03日 09:58

  普通话和方言

  现代汉语是现代汉民族的语言,它包括普通话和多种方言。 普通话是现代汉民族共同语。它以北京语音为标准音,以北方话为基础方言,以典范的现代白话文作为语法规范。普通话为中国不同地区、不同民族人们之间的交际提供了方便。

  中国地域广阔,人口众多,即使都使用汉语言,各地区说的话也不一样,这就是方言。方言俗称地方话,是汉语在不同地域的分支,只通行于一定的地域。汉语目前有七大类方言:北方方言、吴方言、湘方言、赣方言、客家方言、闽方言、粤方言。其中,北方方言是通行地域最广,使用人口最多的方言。客家话、闽语、粤语还在海外的华侨华人中使用。

  汉语方言十分复杂。各方言之间的差异表现在语音、词汇、语法三个方面,其中语音方面的差异最明显。在中国东南沿海地区就有“十里不同音”的说法。如果各地人之间都用方言土语说话,就会造成交际上的困难。

  早在2,000多年前,中国人就认识到,社会交际应该使用一种共同语。与“十里不同音”的方言相比,各地人都能听得懂普通话。因为讲普通话有利于各民族、各地区人民之间的文化交流和信息传递,所以中国政府十分重视推广普通话的工作,鼓励大家都学普通话。

  Mandarin has Beijing pronunciation as its standard pronunciation, northern dialect as its basic dialect, and the typical modern vernacular Chinesea as its grammatical standard. Mandarin offers convenience for communication between people at different areas or of different ethnic groups in China.

  China has a vast territory and a large population. Even though people all use the Chinese language, they speak in different ways in different areas, which are called dialects. Generally called local languages, dialects are branches of the Chinese language in different regions, and are only used in certain areas. At present, the Chinese language has seven dialects: northern dialectb, Wu dialectc, Xiang dialectd, Gan dialecte, Hakkaf, Min dialectg and Yue or Guangdong dialecth. Among them, northern dialect is one used most widely. Hakka, Fujian dialect and Guangdong dialect are also used by overseas Chinese.

  Dialects of the Chinese language are very complicated. Various dialects differ from each other on three aspects: pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar. And the difference in pronunciation is the most outstanding. There is a saying in coastal areas of southeastern China -"Pronunciations differ within 10-li (Chinese unit of measurement, 1 li=0.5 km) area".If all people in different areas speak in local dialects, it will lead to the trouble in communications.

  More than 2,000 years ago, Chinese people had realized that a common language should be used in social intercourse. Compared with dialects "differing within 10-li area", Mandarin can be understood by all people. Since it is beneficial to cultural exchange and information transmission between ethnic groups and people in different places, the Chinese government attaches great importance to popularizing Mandarin and encourages people to learn Mandarin.

【来源:中国华文教育网】