中国华文教育网
远古神话 Myths of Remote Antiquity
2009年09月03日 10:05

  远古神话

  中国远古神话,大多是原始社会劳动人民的集体创作。它们经历了口头流传的漫长岁月,直到文字发明以后,才被记载下来。

  中国远古神话,以丰富神奇的想象,反映了远古社会丰富多彩的历史内容,其中有:解释世界起源的《盘古开天地》、《女娲造人》、《女娲补天》;反映人类与自然作斗争的《后羿射日》、《夸父追日》、《精卫填海》;歌颂献身精神的《神农尝药》、《鲧(gun)禹治水》等等。

  《女娲补天》讲的是:远古时候,天空突然塌下半边,出现了一个大洞,大地上洪水泛滥,猛兽横行,人类面临?巨大的灾难。这时,人类的母亲女娲挺身而出,炼出五彩石修补天空,拯救了人类。

  《鲧禹治水》讲述了鲧、禹父子两代治理洪水的故事。远古时候,大地被洪水淹没,大神鲧偷了天帝的宝贝“息壤”——一种能自己生长的土,去堵塞洪水,事后被天帝处死。三年后,禹从鲧的肚子里跳出,继承父亲的事业,继续治水。八年之中,大禹三过家门而不入,终于疏通了河道,使洪水流进了大海。

  这些美丽动人的神话,不仅反映了远古先民对自然现象的认识和征服自然的愿望,也体现了中华民族祖先不怕困难、英勇顽强地与自然灾害作斗争的伟大精神。

  中国远古神话在民间流传很广,它给人以鼓舞和启发,促使人们把神奇的幻想变为现实。远古神话对中国文学的发展影响很大,后世的许多著名作家都从古代神话中吸取营养,创作出了优美、动人的文学篇章。

  Chinese myths of remote antiquity were mostly created collectively by the laboring people of the primitive society, circulated and handed down orally until written script was invented to provide a more permanent record.

  Drawing on the powerful imagination of their creators, these myths reflect the rich and colorful life of ancient society. The best-known include Pangu Separates the Sky from the Earth, Nu Wa Makes Men, Nu Wa Mends the Sky, describing how the world came into being; Hou Yi Shoots down Suns, Kua Fu Chases the Sun, Jing Wei Determines to Fill up the Sea, reflecting mankind's incessant struggle against nature; Shennong Shi Tastes Medicine, Gun and Yu Harness Water, written in praise of selfless devotion.

  Nu Wa Mends the Sky: Long, long ago, half of the sky suddenly collapsed and a huge hole appeared. Floods ravaged the land and beasts ran amok, so that the human race was in great danger. Just then, a woman named Nu Wa came out to mend the sky with five colored rocks that she had previously tempered, and thus saved mankind.

  Gun and Yu Harness Water: Long, long ago, the land was flooded. A deity named Gun stole the Heavenly Emperor's treasure, xirang, a kind of earth that could grow to block floods. He was later tracked down and put to death. Three years later, Yu leapt out of Gun's stomach. He succeeded to his father's work and continued to harness the waters. He was so devoted to the task that in eight years he never once entered his own home, although he passed the front door three times. The river was harnessed at last, and the floodwaters poured safely into the sea through the watercourses they had dredged.

  Such fascinating myths not only reflected ancient people's understanding of nature and their wish to tame it, but also their dauntless spirit and tenacity in the struggle against natural disasters.

  Chinese myths of remote antiquity continue to circulate, giving people courage and providing them with enlightenment to help them turn their dreams into reality. The ancient fantasies had a great impact on the development of Chinese literature. Many renowned writers of later generations drew inspiration from them in their own outstanding works.

【来源:中国华文教育网】