中国华文教育网
《诗经》 The Book of Songs
2009年09月03日 10:06

  《诗经》

  《诗经》是中国第一部诗歌总集。它收录了从西周初年到春秋中叶大约500年间的305首诗。相传,周代的采诗官经常到民间收集诗歌,也有官员们向天子献诗的制度。这些诗歌经过乐官的整理编订后,形成了这部诗歌总集。《诗经》最初叫《诗》或《诗三百》,后来,孔子把《诗三百》作为教科书传授给弟子。汉代以后又被称为《诗经》。

  《诗经》以四字句为主,语言清新,音韵和谐,风格朴素。如:

  ……

  彼采萧(xiao)兮(xi),

  一日不见,

  如三秋兮。

  ……

  这首名叫《采葛(ge)》的诗,表达了一位男子思念情人的焦急心情。诗的大意是:她去采集香草了,一天没见,好象隔了三年那么长。成语“一日不见,如隔三秋”就是由此而来的。

  《诗经》中的很多作品都真实地描写了当时的社会风貌,其中表现青年男女爱情、婚姻生活的特别多。除此以外,有的诗歌描写了下层人民的劳动生活;有的反映了人民反抗压迫,追求自由幸福的愿望;有的控诉了战争造成的苦难;有的直接揭露了统治者的丑恶。

  《诗经》是中国文学的光辉起点。它所取得的思想和艺术成就,对后世诗歌的发展产生了巨大而深远的影响。

  The Book of Songs is the earliest collection of poems in China. It contains 305 poems created over a period of some 500 years from the early Western Zhou Dynasty (11th century-771 BC) to the middle of the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC). It was said that, in the Zhou Dynasty, there were officials whose job was to collect poems from the public. There was also a rule requiring officials to compose poems and present them to the emperor for eventual editing and compilation in this anthology. At first, The Book of Songs was known as Poems or Three Hundred Poems. Confucius used it as a textbook for teaching his disciples. Eventually, after the Han Dynasty, more than 2,000 years ago, it became known officially as The Book of Songs.

  Poems in The Book of Songs are made up of four-character verses. The language used is in the form of concise and refreshing rhymes. They are simple in style. For instance:

  There she is gathering vine/ A day without seeing her/ Is like three seasons.

  This poem entitled Gathering Vine expresses a young man's anxiety in the absence of his woman. The popular idiom "a day without seeing is like three seasons"originated from this poem.

  Many poems in The Book of Songs truthfully mirror the life and society of that time. A large number are about love and marriage. Others depict the hard work of laborers at the bottom of society, while some reflect people's wishes for a free and happy life, denounce wars that caused sufferings, and directly expose the evil acts of rulers.

  The Book of Songs' ideological and artistic achievements had great influence on the evolvement of poetry of later generations.

【来源:中国华文教育网】