中国华文教育网
汉乐府 Yuefu Songs of the Han Dynasty
2009年09月03日 10:07

  汉乐府

  “乐府”原指汉代的音乐机构,它的职责是收集、采撷文人诗和民间歌谣,并配上乐曲。后来,由乐府收集、编制的诗也被称为乐府。汉乐府中的精华是汉乐府民歌。

  江南可采莲,莲叶何田田。鱼戏莲叶间。鱼戏莲叶东,鱼戏莲叶西,鱼戏莲叶南,鱼戏莲叶北。

  这首名为《江南》的民歌,表现了江南百姓采莲的情景和劳动时的愉快心情。诗的大意是:江南大湖里的莲蓬到了可以采摘的季节,湖里长满了莲花荷叶,小鱼儿在莲叶间游来游去……

  汉乐府民歌大多是叙事诗,这些诗真实地表达了人民的喜怒哀乐。有的反映了劳动人民的穷困生活;有的揭露了战争给人民带来的痛苦;有的表现了反对封建婚姻、追求美好爱情的愿望;有的揭露了贵族的腐朽生活和社会的黑暗。

  《孔雀东南飞》是汉乐府中最有名的诗篇,也是中国历史上第一部长篇叙事诗,它生动地叙述了一个封建家庭的爱情悲剧故事:

  孔雀东南飞,五里一徘徊。十三能织素,十四学裁衣,十五弹箜篌(konghou),十六诵诗书……

  聪明、美丽、善良的刘兰芝和焦仲卿结婚后,互敬互爱,感情深厚。但是,焦仲卿的母亲却狠毒地拆散了这对夫妻。刘兰芝、焦仲卿双双自杀,变成了一对永不分离的鸳鸯,“仰头相向鸣,夜夜达五更”。这首长诗,通过刘兰芝、焦仲卿的悲剧,控诉了封建礼教、家长统治的罪恶,表达了青年男女追求婚姻自由的愿望。

  汉乐府真实反映社会现实的精神和伟大的艺术成就,对后世诗歌的发展产生了直接和巨大的影响。

  Yuefu originally referred to the musical bureau in the Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 AD) in charge of collection of folk ballads and poems created by literati, which would then be set to music. Later, poems and folk ballads collected and compiled by the Yuefu were given this generic name. Folk songsa form the best part of the Yuefu songs of the Han Dynasty.

  Time to gather lotus in the Yangtze Valley, / As lotus leaves are fair and lusty. / Fish frolic amidst the lotus leaves. / Fish frolic to the east of the lotus leaves, / Fish frolic to the west of the lotus leaves, / Fish frolic to the south of the lotus leaves, / Fish frolic to the north of the lotus leaves.

  This folk song entitled Jiangnan (south of the Yangtze River) depicts the joyous mood of local people gathering lotus.

  Most of the Yuefu songs of the Han Dynasty are narrative poems, which truthfully reflected people's feelings. Some mirror the poverty-stricken life of laboring people; some expose the misery caused by war; some express opposition to feudal marriage customs and express a wish for true love; some reveal the decadent life of noblemen and the seedy side of society.

  The best known is The Bride of Jiao Zhongqing (Kong Que Dong Nan Fei), which is also the earliest long narrative poem in Chinese history. It gives a vivid account of a tragedy of two lovers in a feudal family.

  Southeast the lovelorn peacock flies. Alack, / At every mile she falters and looks back! / At thirteen years Lanzhi learned how to weave; / At fourteen years she could embroider, sew; / At fifteen music on her lute she made; / At sixteen knew the classics, prose and verse....

  Liu Lanzhi, a smart, pretty and kind-hearted girl, and her husband Jiao Zhongqing, loved each other deeply, but Jiao's mother was so cruel that she forced them to separate. As a result, both Jiao and Liu committed suicide and turned into a pair of lovebirds. "They cross their bills and sing to one another / Their soft endearments all night long till dawn.?"The tragedy condemned the feudal ethics and evil clan rule, and expressed the wishes of the young for free marriage.

  The pursuit of faithful reflection of social reality by Yuefu songs of the Han Dynasty and the artistic merits they achieved had great impact on the development of poetry in later generations.

【来源:中国华文教育网】