中国华文教育网
铁路 Railways
2009年09月03日 13:42

  铁路是中国最重要的运输方式,到2000年底,铁路营运里程达6.86万千米,居世界第三位。

  Railways provide a vital transportation mode in China. By the end of 2000, there were 68,600 km of track in use, the third longest in the world.

  中国铁路干线可以分为南北干线和东西干线两大组,在南北干线和东西干线的交叉或衔接处,形成了许多重要的铁路枢纽,如北京、上海、天津、重庆、哈尔滨、徐州、西安、武汉等。东西干线主要有京包—包兰线、陇海—兰新线、沪杭—浙赣—湘黔—贵昆线;南北干线主要有京哈—京广线、京沪线、京九线、焦柳线、宝成—成昆线等。这“三横”、“五纵”构成了中国铁路干线的主要骨架。

  京广铁路北起北京,南到广州,穿过河北、河南、湖北、湖南、广东五省,全长2,324千米,是纵贯中国南北的交通大动脉,全线货运、客运都十分繁忙。

  京沪铁路是纵贯中国东部地区的主要铁路干线,贯穿北京、天津、上海三个直辖市以及河北、山东、安徽、江苏四省,是首都北京通向华东地区的主要干线,全长1,462千米。京沪沿线经济繁荣,城镇密布。

  京九铁路,从北京到香港的九龙,是介于京广、京沪两条纵向干线之间的又一条南北大动脉,对增强首都北京与香港以及南北方向的联系具有重要意义。

  陇海—兰新铁路,东起连云港,西至西北重镇兰州,长1,736千米,这段称陇海线;由兰州向西至乌鲁木齐,长1,904千米,这段称兰新线。兰新线现已向西延伸至阿拉山口,与哈萨克斯坦铁路相连,成为了亚欧大陆桥的一个组成部分。陇海—兰新铁路是横贯中国东西的交通大动脉,对沟通东部与西部、沿海与内地、中国与欧洲的联系以及西部大开发等,都具有极其重要的意义。

  青藏铁路,从青海西宁经格尔木到西藏拉萨(西宁—格尔木段已建成通车,格尔木—拉萨段正在建设之中),全长1,118千米。它的建成将结束西藏无铁路的历史。

  China's trunk railways can be divided into two groups running south-north and east-west. There are many important hubs where lines meet such as, Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Chongqing, Harbin, Xuzhou, Xian and Wuhan. The east-west trunk railways include such lines as Beijing-Baotou, Baotou-Lanzhou, Lianyungang-Lanzhou, Lanzhou-Urumqi, Shanghai-Hangzhou, Hangzhou-Nanchang, Zhuzhou-Guiyang and Guizhou-Kunming. The south-north trunk railways mainly include the Beijing-Harbin, Beijing-Guangzhou, Beijing-Shanghai, Beijing-Kowloon, Jiaozuo-Liuzhou, Baoji-Chengdu and Chengdu-Kunming lines. These lines form the basic framework of Chinese trunk railways.

  The Beijing-Guangzhou line extends from the nation's capital in the north to Guangzhou in the south, passing through Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan and Guangdong provinces. It covers 2,324 km and is the main artery of communications from north to south, carrying heavy loads of goods and passengers.

  The Beijing-Shanghai line is the major trunk route in eastern China, linking the cities of Beijing, Tianjin and Shanghai and the four provinces of Hebei, Shandong, Anhui and Jiangsu, it has a total length of 1,462 km. There are many cities along this line and this part is the most prosperous region in China.

  The Beijing-Kowloon line is another major north-south railway. It bears great importance in strengthening the connection between the nation's capital and Hong Kong.

  The Longhai-Lanxin Railway has two parts. One part, called the Longhai Line, extends from Lianyungang in the east to Lanzhou in the northwest and has a length of 1,736 km; the other part, called the Lanxin Line, is about 1,904 km long, and extends from Lanzhou westward to Urumqi in Xinjiang. Now, the Lanxin Line has further extended westward to the Ala Mountain Pass. Connecting to the Kazakhstan rail system, it has become a key component in the Asia-Europe continental bridge. The Longhai-Lanxin Railway, traversing China from east to west, has an important role to play in western development and in developing a land transport route to Europe.

  The 1,118-km-long Qinghai-Tibet Railway, from Xining in Qinghai Province and passing through Golmud to Lhasa in Tibet (the part from Xining to Golmud is already operational, while the remainder is under construction), will finally give Tibet its first rail link with the rest of the country.

【来源:中国华文教育网】