中国华文教育网
中国近代史概述 Modern Period Introduction
2009年09月03日 14:06






  英国于公元1840年前后在世界上率先完成工业革命,成为当时最强大的资本主义国家。英国为了扩大工业品的销售市场,占领更广阔的工业原料产地,发动了侵略中国的鸦片战争,中国在鸦片战争中战败,被迫与英国签订了《中英南京条约》等不平等条约。从此,中国的主权与领土完整遭到破坏,开始沦为半殖民地半封建的国家。所以,史学界以1840年作为中国近代史的开端,此后110年的历史,是中国的近代史。鸦片战争后的100多年中,列强又多次发动对中国的侵略战争,使中国的主权与领土完整继续遭到破坏,使中国人民遭受殖民主义者的欺辱;同时,中国也涌现出许许多多的抵抗侵略,挽救国家危亡的可歌可泣的事?。如太平天国运动、戊戌变法运动、义和团运动等,特别是1911年孙中山领导的辛亥革命,推翻了中国2,000多年的封建君主专制制度,建立了中华民国;1919年的五四运动,为中国共产党的诞生奠定了基础;1921年,中国共产党的诞生,使中国革命出现了新局面。 1949年,在中国共产党的领导下,中国人民赶走了帝国主义势力,推翻了国民党在大陆的统治,结束了半殖民地半封建社会的历史,取得了革命的胜利。

  Britain was the first country in the world to complete the Industrial Revolution, in the early 19th century, and became the most powerful capitalist country at that time. As part of its efforts to expand the markets for its industrial products and to secure more sources of industrial raw materials, Britain launched a war against China—the Opium War—in which China was defeated and was forced to sign unequal treaties, including the Treaty of Nanking. From that time on, China's sovereignty and territorial integrity were threatened continually, and China began to sink to the level of a semi-colonial and semi-feudal country. So historians regard 1840 as the beginning of China's modern history, and the following 110 years as the history of modern China. During the 100 years following the Opium War, the imperialist powers launched wars of aggression against China many times. At the same time, resistance movements emerged, such as that of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, the Reform Movement of 1898 and the Yihetuan Movement. Among all these movements that which had the greatest significance was the Revolution of 1911 led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen, which overthrew the 2,000-year-old autocratic feudal monarchy, and established the Republic of China. The May 4 Movement of 1919 laid the groundwork for the foundation of the Chinese Communist Party, which finally liberated China from imperialist oppression in 1949.

【来源:中国华文教育网】