中国华文教育网
闯王李自成 Li Zicheng and the Fall of the Ming Dynasty
2009年09月03日 14:32

  闯王李自成

  明朝后期,由于皇帝腐朽无能,宦官专权,政治黑暗腐败。官僚地主霸占了全国绝大部分的良田沃土,很多农民失去了土地,政府还不断地向农民征收赋税,困苦不堪的农民又遭到蝗灾、旱灾等自然灾害。在这种情况下,农民起义迅速地在全国酝酿(yunniang),公元1627年,农民起义首先在灾情严重的陕北爆发。农民战争发展迅猛,短短几年内,就涌现出几十支起义军,其中以高迎祥领导的起义军规模最大。高迎祥死后,起义军主要有两支:一支由张献忠率领,另一支由李自成率领。

  李自成(公元1606~1645年),陕西米脂人。1630年在家乡米脂起义,不久投奔高迎祥,成为高迎祥手下的一名闯将,高迎祥死后,被拥为“闯王”,率领一支起义军转战于河南一带。当时,河南是灾情比较严重的地区,李自成在谋士的帮助下,提出“均田免粮”的口号,赢得了广大农民的支持,人们互相流传“杀牛羊,备酒浆,开了城门迎闯王”。起义军迅速壮大,发展到百万人。1641年,李自成起义军攻占了洛阳,活捉并杀死了福王朱常洵,没收王府中的财物,分给老百姓。1644年,李自成在西安建立了大顺政权,同年,乘胜进攻北京,明朝最后一个皇帝崇祯在煤山(今北京景山)上吊自杀,三月,李自成大军占领了北京。

  农民军进了北京之后,严整军纪。大顺政权命令明朝的贵族、官僚、富户交出大量钱财,还镇压了一批罪大恶极的达官贵人,大顺政权控制了长城以南、淮河以北的广大地区。

  李自成进北京的消息传到关外,满清摄政王多尔衮(gun)急忙率兵南下,降服了驻守山海关的明将吴三桂。不久,李自成亲自率农民军同吴三桂的军队和清军在山海关展开大战,农民军战败。李自成被迫率军撤出北京,转战于河南、陕西等地。1645年,李自成战死于湖北九宫山。

  The emperors in the late years of the Ming Dynasty were fatuous and incompetent, and power gradually slipped into the hands of eunuchs. Bureaucrats and landlords forcibly occupied large tracts of the fertile lands, leaving many peasants landless. Taxes and natural disasters, which officials did little to relieve, added to the burdens on the peasants, and eventually, in 1627 AD, a large-scale uprising broke out in the area of what is now northern Shaanxi Province. The unrest spread throughout the country. The strongest of the rebel peasant armies was led by Gao Yingxiang. After Gao's death, his army divided into two main parts: one was led by Zhang Xianzhong, and the other by Li Zicheng.

  Li Zicheng (1606-1645 AD) was born in Mizhi, Shaanxi Province. In 1630, he joined the uprising, rising rapidly to become a general under Gao Yingxiang. With the death of Gao, he took command of the rebel forces in present-day Henan Province. Li Zicheng won the support of the people in this disaster-stricken area by a policy of land reform and abolition of agricultural taxes. Li's army grew rapidly to become a million-strong force. Wherever Li Zicheng's army went, it distributed the property of the landlords among the people. In 1644, Li Zicheng established the Dashun Dynasty in Xi'an. In the same year, he marched on to Beijing. As the rebels entered the capital, Emperor Chongzhen, the last Ming emperor, committed suicide by hanging himself on Coal Hill (Jingshan), just behind the Forbidden City.

  Li Zicheng enforced strict military discipline, punished officials guilty of crimes and corruption, and paid much attention to the people's welfare. The regime controlled a vast area from south of the Great Wall to north of the Huaihe River.

  Meanwhile, Dorgon, the prince regent of the Qing Dynasty, which had been set up in 1636 by the united Manchu tribes of northeast China, hurriedly led an army southward. Breaking through the strategic Shanhai Pass, Dorgon drove Li Zicheng from Beijing. In 1645, Li Zicheng was killed in battle at Mount Jiugong, in present-day Hubei Province.

【来源:中国华文教育网】