中国华文教育网
清官海瑞 Hai Rui, an Upright and Incorruptible Official
2009年09月03日 14:33

 

 

 

  清官海瑞

  海瑞(公元1514~1587年),海南琼州人。1558年,他被任命为浙江淳安县知县。在他来之前,县里的官吏贪赃枉法,处理案件都是胡乱结案。海瑞到任后,认真处理案件,纠正了许多冤案错案,老百姓非常敬重他。

  1564年,海瑞被调到京城做官。当时的皇帝明世宗相信长生不老,整天跟道士在皇宫里修炼,有20多年没上朝处理国家大事了。当时的大臣都不敢劝皇帝。海瑞官虽不大,胆子却不小,他在1565年写了一道奏章批评明世宗,海瑞估计明世宗看了这一道奏章以后,可能杀自己的头,于是自己买了一口棺材,告别妻子,并且把他死后的事交代好。明世宗看到他的奏章后,果然大怒,把海瑞逮捕入狱。明世宗死后,海瑞获释。

  1569年,海瑞又被任命为江南巡抚,巡视应天十府(包括苏州、应天、松江、常州、镇江、徽州等地)。应天府是明朝经济、文化最发达的地区,但也是大官僚大地主最集中,国家最难管理的地方。大官僚大地主霸占了大量的良田。海瑞坚决要求他们把霸占的土地无偿退还给农民,大官僚大地主因此非常仇恨海瑞,于是和朝廷内的一些官员相勾结,在皇帝面前说海瑞的坏话,皇帝被这些人欺骗了,罢免了海瑞的官职,海瑞从此闲居10多年。

  明神宗时,年迈的海瑞又被起用,1587年,海瑞死于南京任上。海瑞做官几十年,为人民做了许多好事,人们都叫他“海青天”。

  Hai Rui (1514-1587 AD) was born in Qiongzhou, Hainan Province. In 1558 AD, he was appointed county magistrate of Chun'an County in Zhejiang Province. He cleaned up this notoriously corrupt county, setting an example of honest government.

  In 1564, Hai Rui was transferred to an official post in the capital. The emperor, Shizong, was obsessed with Taoism and the "earch for immortality"and completely neglected state affairs. Though only a very junior official, Hai Rui had the courage to send a memorial to the throne, censuring the emperor. Fully convinced that the emperor would have him executed, Hai Rui bought a coffin, bade farewell to his wife, and settled his affairs. He was not, in fact, executed, but thrown into prison and not released until after Emperor Shizong's death.

  In 1569, Hai Rui was appointed imperial inspector of the 10 areas under the administration of Yingtian (including Suzhou, Yingtian, Songjiang, Changzhou, Zhenjiang, Huizhou, and others). Yingtian was the most advanced region in both economy and culture in the Ming Dynasty. Senior officials had carved out large estates for themselves there, depriving the state of large amounts of fertile land. Hai Rui insisted on the breaking up of these estates, and the return of the land to the peasants unconditionally. His enemies thereupon banded together to slander him to the emperor, Muzong, and Hai Rui was stripped of his official rank. After 10 years living in retirement, the new emperor Shenzong made Hai Rui magistrate of Nanjing. He held this post until his death in 1587. He was renowned far and wide as a model of an upright and incorruptible official.

 

 

 

【来源:中国华文教育网】