中国华文教育网
明朝开国皇帝朱元璋 Zhu Yuanzhang, the First Emperor of the Ming Dynasty
2009年09月03日 14:34

  明朝开国皇帝朱元璋

  元朝末年,统治者昏庸无能,社会经济发展迟缓,甚至倒退,黄河又多次决口。连年的天灾人祸,农民几乎没有办法生活下去,于是在14世纪中叶爆发了大规模的农民起义。

  朱元璋(公元1328~1398年),是元末农民領袖之一,他出生於濠(hao)州(今安徽凤阳)一个貧苦农民家庭。1352年,郭子兴率领农民在濠州起义,朱元璋参加到这支队伍中来,作战勇敢又足智多谋,很快就得到郭子兴的重用。郭子兴死后,朱元璋成了这支队伍的首领。1356年3月,朱元璋亲自带领大军,攻占了集庆(今南京),并改名为“应天府”。他接受谋士的建议,在应天召集了许多有才能的人。同时朱元璋以应天为中心,采取先易后难的战斗策略,一个一个地消灭附近的元军。这时候,原来的其它起义队伍也都各霸一方,割地称王。1364年,朱元璋消灭了他最强大的敌人——陈友谅的起义队伍,此后,其它农民起义队伍都被他一个个打败。

  1368年,朱元璋在应天称帝,定国号为明,史称明朝,朱元璋就是明太祖。同年秋天,攻克元大都,结束了元朝在全国的统治。此后,他又用近20年的时间,完成了统一大业。

  朱元璋说,国家刚刚稳定,就像小鸟刚出窝不可以拔毛一样,需要好好管理。他重视农业生产,命令在战争中流亡的农民回家种田,鼓励他们开垦新的农田;提倡种植棉、桑、麻等经济作物,免除他们三年的赋税。到1393年,全国可耕种的土地是元末的四倍。他恢复了手工艺人的自由身份。他还重视水利,建国后,修建了许多水利工程。这些措施对全国社会经济文化的进一步发展提供了有利的条件。明太祖废除丞相,在中央设立六部,六部直接对皇帝负责,加强了中央集权。他还严厉处罚贪官污吏,制定法律,为明朝的统治打下了良好的基础。

  A combination of incompetent rulers and natural disasters led to peasant uprisings which overthrew the Yuan Dynasty.

  Zhu Yuanzhang (1328-1398 AD) was a leader of one of these peasant uprisings. He was born into a poor peasant's family in Haozhou (today's Fengyang, Anhui Province). In March 1356, Zhu Yuanzhang captured Jiqing (today's Nanjing) and changed its name to Yingtian. With this major city as his base, he defeated not only the Yuan armies sent against him but also rival peasant rebel forces.

  In 1368, Zhu Yuanzhang proclaimed himself emperor, historically known as Emperor Taizu, of the Ming Dynasty in Nanjing. In the autumn of the same year, the Ming army took Dadu, the capital of the Yuan Empire, putting an end to the rule of the Mongols. However, it took Zhu Yuanzhang nearly 20 more years to consolidate his hold over the whole country.

  Emperor Taizu's first concern was to restore agricultural production, which had been severely disrupted during the wars. He encouraged peasants who had fled from their homes during the fighting to return to their fields and to open up new land. He advocated the planting of cash crops such as cotton, mulberries and hemp, offering tax exemptions as an incentive. By 1393, the area of agricultural land had grown to four times as big as that at the end of the Yuan Dynasty, and irrigation works had been expanded greatly. Emperor Taizu also extended preferential treatment to craftsmen. All these measures provided advantageous conditions for the further overall development of society, economy and culture nationwide. Emperor Taizu abolished the position of prime minister, and set up six offices known as "boards"in the central government, which were directly responsible to the emperor. This method strengthened the centralization of authority. At the same time, the emperor made a thorough overhaul of the existing laws, increasing the penalties for offenders.

【来源:中国华文教育网】