中国华文教育网
明、清(鸦片战争以前) 概述 Further Development of the Unitary Multi-ethnic Country and Decline of Feudal Society
2009年09月03日 14:35

  统一的多民族国家进一步发展和封建社会由盛而衰时期——明、清(鸦片战争以前)

  概述

  Introduction

  14至19世纪,是中国封建社会衰落的明清时期。明朝从朱元璋(公元1368年)在南京建立,到1644年崇祯皇帝吊死北京煤山,历时280多年。从1644年清朝顺治皇帝入主北京,到1840年鸦片战争爆发,清朝前期的统治长达190多年。明朝时,统一的多民族国家进一步发展。明朝前期经济发展,社会繁荣,郑和多次出使西洋各国,促进了中外友好交往。清朝的康熙、雍正和干隆时期,出现了繁荣的“盛世”。明清时期,中国人民创造了丰富的物质财富和精神财富,涌现出许多政治家、思想家、军事家、探险家、科学家,他们在中华民族的史册上谱写了光辉的篇章。

  这一时期,世界历史进展迅猛,东西方经济文化接触日益频繁,新航路的开辟使世界密切联系起来。14、15世纪,欧洲地中海沿岸一些城市出现了资本主义萌芽。17~18世纪,英、美、法三国先后发生资产阶级革命,世界历史进入新的时期。西方先进国家已经进入工业革命的成熟阶段,资本主义发展迅速。相比之下,中国却未能同步发展。虽然中国从明朝中后期产生资本主义萌芽,但由于封建制度的束缚,生产力发展受到严重阻碍,商品经济发展艰难,封建社会由盛而衰。随?中国社会发展的逐步落伍和西方殖民主义侵略势力的到来,中国封建统治者对外部世界的态度,逐渐由交往转向闭关锁国,同西方国家的差距迅速拉大。

  The final phase of Chinese feudal society is represented by the period of the Ming and Qing dynasties, from the 14th to the 19th centuries. The Ming Dynasty lasted over 280 years from its establishment by Zhu Yuanzhang in Nanjing in 1368 AD to Emperor Chongzhen's suicide in 1644. The early reign of the Qing Dynasty lasted over 190 years from Emperor Shunzhi's entry into Beijing in 1644 to the outbreak of the Opium War in 1840. In the Ming Dynasty, there was a closer integration of the many ethnic groups that composed China. In the first half of the dynasty, the economy developed rapidly, and society was prosperous. Admiral Zheng He made seven long-distance voyages with huge merchant fleets, and promoted China's friendly relations with foreign countries. The reigns of emperors Kangxi, Yongzheng and Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty are regarded as a golden age both materially and culturally, and there emerged great numbers of statesmen, thinkers, strategists, explorers and scientists in those days.

  During this period also, economic and cultural contacts between the East and the West became more and more frequent. The opening of new navigation routes linked almost all corners of the globe. With the Industrial Revolution in the West, capitalism progressed rapidly. However, China was left behind during this phase of history, due to the restrictions imposed by the feudal political and economic structure, which hampered the development of commerce. But aggression by Western colonialists forced the Chinese feudal rulers to change their attitude to the outside world.

【来源:中国华文教育网】