中国华文教育网
宋词与元曲 Song Ci Poetry and Yuan Drama
2009年09月03日 14:35

  宋词与元曲

  宋朝文学的主要成就是词。词是一种新体诗歌,唐朝时已经出现,最初在民间流行。句子有长有短,便于演唱。经过五代到两宋,词得到极大的发展。两宋时期,优秀词人不断出现。苏轼、李清照、辛弃疾、柳永、周邦彦、姜夔(kui)等的词代表了宋词的最高成就。

  苏轼(公元1037~1101年),号东坡居士,四川人,中国古代著名文学家,具有多方面的艺术才能和造诣。他的词豪迈奔放,描绘壮观的景物,给词注入了生命力,对词的发展作出了突出的贡献。他的“大江东去,浪淘尽,千古风流人物”(《念奴娇·赤壁怀古》),“但愿人长久,千里共婵娟(指月亮)”(《水调歌头·明月几时有》)被世世代代的中国人千古传诵。

  李清照,生活在北宋末年南宋初年,济南人,中国文学史上杰出的女词人。她前半生,婚姻生活美满,词写得精巧、优美,如“帘卷西风,人比黄花瘦”(《醉花阴·薄雾浓云愁永昼》),“才下眉头,却上心头”(《一剪梅·无言独上西楼》)等词,写出了一个生活悠闲自在的妇女对出门在外的丈夫的深情思念,前一句因思念而消瘦,后一句因思念而烦恼。后期,由于丈夫病死,国家破碎,她的词变为哀怨、悲愤,一直没能摆脱“寻寻觅觅,冷冷清清,凄凄惨惨戚戚”(《声声慢》)的悲凉、忧伤情绪。

  元朝文学的主要成就是元曲。元曲由散曲和杂剧组成。散曲是在民间歌词的基础上,吸收少数民族音乐,形成的长短不齐的新的诗歌形式。马致远、关汉卿(q1ng)、白朴、张可久、贯云石(维吾尔族)、张养浩等人的作品代表了元曲的成就。描写出门在外凄凉的“枯藤老树昏鸦,小桥流水人家”(马致远《天净沙·秋思》);概括了作为一个普通老百姓生活艰辛的“兴,百姓苦!亡,百姓苦!”(张养浩《山坡羊·潼关怀古》)等都是人们非常喜欢的精彩语句。

  元朝戏剧空前发达,出现了元杂剧。元杂剧是一种把音乐、歌舞、动作、念白(对话、独白)相结合的综合艺术。现有剧目二百多种。关汉卿的《窦娥冤》、马致远的《汉宫秋》、郑光祖的《倩女离魂》、白朴的《梧桐雨》及王实甫的《西厢记》等都是经典的元杂剧。

  关汉卿,大都人,是元杂剧作家中最杰出的一位。他一生从事戏剧创作活动,长期生活在演员中间,有时亲自登台演出。他是一位高产作家,写了60多种杂剧,流传至今的有18种。关汉卿因为经常在作品中揭露社会的黑暗,常常受到威胁,但他毫不动摇,在一首曲子中自称是“蒸不烂、煮不熟、捶不扁、炒不爆、响当当一粒铜豌豆”。

  The main literary achievement in the Song Dynasty was Ci (poetry written to certain tunes with strict tonal patterns and rhyme schemes, in fixed numbers of lines and words, originating in the Tang Dynasty and fully developed in the Song Dynasty). Ci have sentences of different lengths, which are convenient for singing. Many outstanding writers of Ci appeared in the two Song dynasties, such as Su Shi, Li Qingzhao, Xin Qiji, Liu Yong, Zhou Bangyan and Jiang Kui.

  Su Shi (1037-1101 AD) is also known by his literary name Dongpo (Eastern Slope). He was from Sichuan Province, and contributed greatly to the development of Ci. Famous lines of his, which are still quoted today include "the endless river eastward flows/ With its huge waves are gone all those gallant heroes of bygone days"and "May we live a long life/ And together share the beauty of the moonlight".

  Li Qingzhao lived in the period of the late Northern Song Dynasty and early Southern Song Dynasty. She was born in Jinan, Shandong Province. Her early life was pleasant and comfortable, with a happy marriage. Her delicate and cheerful poetry written in this period reflects this. However, following the death of her husband and the rise of turmoil in the country, her works started to betray melancholy and pessimism.

  The main literary achievement in the Yuan Dynasty was Yuan drama. Leading exponents of this genre, which used a new type of lyrical poetry for the dialogue, were Ma Zhiyuan, Guan Hanqing, Bai Pu, Zhang Kejiu, Guan Yunshi (ethnic Uygur) and Zhang Yanghao. "Withered branch, old tree and a crow in the dusk; a little bridge, flowing water and a cottage"describes the loneliness of a traveler far from home. "The rise of the nation brings misery to the people, and its fall also brings misery to the people!"is a biting social commentary. Both these verses are typical of the Yuan style of lyrics.

  Drama reached its heyday during the Yuan Dynasty. Yuan drama combined music, dancing, acting and speaking (dialogue and monologue) all together. Classical Yuan plays include The Injustice Suffered by Dou E by Guan Hanqing, Autumn in the Palace of Han by Ma Zhiyuan, A Beautiful Girl Loses Her Soul by Zheng Guangzu, The Parasol Tree and the Rain by Bai Pu, and Romance of the Western Chamber by Wang Shifu.

  Guan Hanqing was born in Dadu. He was the most prominent dramatist of the Yuan Dynasty. He devoted his life to the stage. He lived among actors, and went on the stage to act sometimes. He was a prolific writer, producing over 60 plays, 18 of which are extant. Guan Hanqing often discloses the dark side of society in his works, and thus came under official suspicion from time to time. But he never wavered in his commitment to portraying real life problems. He once called himself "a bronze pea which cannot be destroyed by steaming, cooking, smashing or frying".

【来源:中国华文教育网】