中国华文教育网
清明上河图 The Social Genre Painting Riverside Scene on the Pure Brightness Festival
2009年09月03日 14:36

  清明上河图

  宋朝绘画,除了人物画、山水画、花鸟画之外,还出现了描写城乡生活的社会风俗画。生活在北宋末年南宋初年的张择端所画的《清明上河图》是其中最优秀、最有名的。《清明上河图》描绘了北宋首都东京(今河南开封)汴(bian)河两岸清明节前后的风貌。

  《清明上河图》现收藏在北京故宫博物院。长卷共分三部分:第一部分画晨光下,郊外河岸上慢慢行进着的一支驮着重物的驴队;第二部分描写汴河交通繁忙的景象,尤其引人注目的是像彩虹般横跨汴河两岸的“虹桥”,桥上熙熙攘攘,车水马龙,非常热闹;第三部分画市区街景,各行各业,应有尽有,街上行人,来来往往。整幅画宽25.5厘米,长525厘米,共画了各类人物800多个,牲畜94头,树木170多棵。它把汴京郊外的菜园风光、汴河上的交通运输、街头的买卖状况、沿街房屋的建筑特征、船夫们的紧张劳动、士大夫们的悠闲自得、雄伟的虹桥、巍峨的城楼以及车子、轿子、骆驼,一一描绘得十分逼真。这幅画感染力强,欣赏价值高,受到人们的普遍喜爱,并被很多画家摹仿。

  《清明上河图》直观地反映了北宋时代东京的城市面貌。它不仅欣赏价值高,而且是研究北宋时期东京的重要材料。

  The Song Dynasty produced masterpieces of figure painting, landscape, flower-and-bird painting, and social genre painting describing both urban and rural life. The most famous of the latter works is one known as Riverside Scene on the Pure Brightness Festival. It was painted by Zhang Zeduan, who lived in the late Northern Song Dynasty and early Southern Song Dynasty. It depicts scenes along the Bianhe River at Dongjing (today's Kaifeng in Henan Province), the capital of the Northern Song Dynasty, at the time of the Pure Brightness Festival. This traditional festival is held in early April, and is the time when people visit their ancestral tombs.

  Now in the collection of the Palace Museum in Beijing, the painting is divided into three parts: The first part shows a team of pack mules plodding along the river bank in the suburbs in the morning light; the second part shows the bustling scene around the Rainbow Bridge spanning the river; the third part depicts the downtown streets, thronged with people plying all sorts of trades, and their customers. The whole scroll is 25.5 cm wide and 525 cm long, and has over 800 human and 94 animal figures, and 170 trees. This fascinating painting shows a wealth of detail of life in those days, covering customs, transportation, business, architecture and the activities of boatmen, sedan-chair carriers, scholars, etc. It provides valuable material for the study of life in the Northern Song capital.

【来源:中国华文教育网】