中国华文教育网
马可·波罗来华 Marco Polo's Travels in China
2009年09月03日 14:38

  马可·波罗来华

  元朝同亚、非、欧各国的交往很多,当时来中国的外国人之中,最著名的是意大利威尼斯人马可·波罗。他在元世祖忽必烈时代来到中国。

  公元1271年夏天,马可·波罗的父亲和叔父带着他离开故乡,经过4年的艰辛旅程,来到了中国。

  马可·波罗聪明好学,来到中国以后,很快学会了蒙古语、骑马和射箭。忽必烈很喜欢他,经常派他出去视察。马可·波罗后来在书中描述中国西北、华北、西南、中南和华东的许多地方,其中多数是他游历过的,但也有一些可能来自传闻。除此之外他还到过南洋很多国家。据说,他在扬州呆过,还当了3年总管呢。

  在中国时间久了,3个欧洲人非常怀念故乡,一再要求回国。获得批准后,他们再次踏上了充满艰险的归途。路上花了4年多时间,终于在1295年回到了威尼斯。

  这时他们已经远离故土24年,当地人以为他们已经死在国外了。现在他们却穿着东方的服装回来了。人们认为他们带回了无数黄金珠宝,给马可起了个外号,叫“百万”。

  没有多久,威尼斯和另外一个城邦热那亚打起了仗。马可·波罗自己花钱买了一条船,亲自驾驶参加威尼斯的舰队。结果威尼斯打了败仗,他做了俘虏,被热那亚人关进了监狱。热那亚人听说他到过东方,常常到监狱里听他讲东方和中国的见闻。牢里关着一个作家,把马可讲的事都记了下来,编成了一本书,叫《马可·波罗行纪》。

  在这本游记里,马可·波罗描绘了一个新奇的东方世界,详细介绍了中国的著名城市,如大都、苏州、扬州、杭州等。这本书一出版,就受到了欧洲人的欢迎,激起了他们对东方文明的向往。 15世纪以后,欧洲的航海家、探险家,普遍受到了马可·波罗的影响,去东方寻找一个遍地黄金的国家。

  The Yuan Dynasty had worldwide contacts. Among the many foreigners who came to China at that time, Marco Polo-an Italian from Venice-was the most famous. He wrote a book about the 17 years he spent in China, which is still a popular travelogue.

  In the summer of 1271, Marco Polo arrived in China with his father and uncle after a journey which had taken four years.

  He became a favorite of Kublai Khan, who often sent him on inspection tours. It is said that he served as the magistrate of Yangzhou for three years. He also traveled to Southeast Asia during this time.

  The three Europeans returned to their homeland in 1295. Marco Polo wrote his account of his journey to China in his The Travels of Marco Polo while in jail, having been captured by enemy forces during a war between Venice and Genoa.

  Marco Polo's description of the fabulous wealth of China under the Yuan Dynasty, and the prosperous cities of Dadu, Suzhou, Yangzhou and Hangzhou, roused the interest of merchants and explorers. The result was expanded contacts and trade between China and Europe.

【来源:中国华文教育网】