中国华文教育网
成吉思汗与忽必烈 Genghis Khan and Kublai Khan
2009年09月03日 14:41

  成吉思汗与忽必烈

  蒙古族是中国北方一个古老的民族。12世紀末,铁木真经过十多年战争统一了蒙古各部,公元1206年被推举为蒙古的大汗,尊称为“成吉思汗(han)”,意思是“坚强的君主”。成吉思汗建立大蒙古国以后,国力强盛,军事行动波及欧洲的多瑙河流域,对世界历史发展进程产生了重大影响。成吉思汗死后,蒙古军队相继灭西夏和金,统一了中国整个北方地区。

  公元1260年,忽必烈(成吉思汗的孙子)继承了汗位,建都大都(今北京)。到1271年,忽必烈正式称皇帝,建立了元朝(公元1271~1368年),他就是元世祖。元世祖逐步巩固对北方的统治之后,就集中力量攻打南宋,终于灭了南宋。公元1279年,实现了中国南北大统一。

  元世祖忽必烈做了皇帝以后,就对中央和地方的行政机构进行改革。他先在中央设立中书省,为最高的行政机构。在全国各地设立了行中书省,简称“行省”,在全国各地共设立十个行中书省,正式作为地方最高的行政机构。另外,吐蕃(今西藏)地区在元朝时也正式成为中国的一个行政区,由中央的宣政院管辖。元朝政府还设置了澎湖巡检司,管辖台湾与澎湖,这是台湾归属中国中央政府管辖的开始。

  元朝行省制度的建立,加强了中央与行省、行省与行省之间的联系,使元朝中央对边疆少数民族地区的管理比以前任何朝代都有效,有利于多民族统一国家的稳定和发展。这是元世祖忽必烈的一项创举。

  元朝创设的行省制度一直沿用到今天,但在辖区的数目与大小等方面已有很大的变化。

  At the end of the 12th century, Temujin united all the Mongolian tribes after 10 years of warfare. In 1206, he was chosen their khan, with the title of "Genghis Khan", which means "mighty monarch". Under Genghis Khan, the Mongol Empire grew, until it stretched from the northern borders of China to the Danube River in Europe. Under Genghis Khan's son and successor, the Mongols wiped out the Western Xia kingdom and the Jin Dynasty, and incorporated northern China into their empire.

  In 1260, Kublai, the grandson of Genghis Khan, succeeded to the position of khan, and decided on Dadu (today's Beijing) as his capital. In 1271, Kublai Khan formally proclaimed himself emperor, historically known as Emperor Shizu, of the newly established Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368 AD). After consolidating his hold emperor, historically known as over the north, he moved against the Southern Song Dynasty, which fell in 1279, and China was united once more.

  Kublai Khan reformed the system of administration, with Zhongshusheng (Metropolitan Secretariat) in the central government as the highest administrative institution, and Xingzhongshusheng (Branch Secretariat) in local governments as the highest local administrative institutions (called Xingsheng for short). There were 10 Xingsheng altogether in the whole country. Tubo (today's Tibet) officially became one of China's administrative regions in the Yuan Dynasty, under the direct administration of Xuanzhengyuan (Commission for Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs) in the central government. In the Yuan Dynasty, too, the island of Taiwan became part of the administrative region of Penghu. This was the beginning of the Chinese central government's administration over Taiwan.

  The setting up of the Xingsheng system strengthened the relations between the central and local governments, as well as those between different local governments. It made the central government's administration over border areas more effective than that of any previous dynasty, solidifying the unity of China as a multi-ethnic country. Moreover, it was the basis of the administrative systems of later dynasties, and even of today's China.

【来源:中国华文教育网】