中国华文教育网
杯酒释兵权 Relieving the Generals of Their Commands at a Feast
2009年09月03日 14:44

  杯酒释兵权

  唐朝灭亡以后,中国的历史进入五代十国的混乱时期。到了后周(公元951~960年)的时候,周世宗让赵匡胤掌握了军事大权。周世宗死后由他年幼的儿子继位,赵匡胤趁机夺取了皇权,建立了宋朝。他就是宋太祖。

  宋太祖赵匡胤做了皇帝以后没多久,就有两个地方节度使反叛宋朝。宋太祖花了很大劲儿,才平定了叛乱。为了这件事,宋太祖心里总不踏实。有一次,他找跟随他多年的赵普说话,问他说:“自从唐朝以后,换了许多朝代,不停地打仗,不知道死了多少百姓。这到底是为甚么呢?”赵普说:“这道理很简单。国家混乱,毛病就出在军事权力不集中,如果把兵权集中到中央,天下就太平了。”宋太祖听了连连点头。他自己就是利用手中的兵权夺取皇位的。为了防止这样的事情再发生,宋太祖决定收回兵权。公元961年秋天的一个晚上,宋太祖在宫中举行宴会,请石守信等几位老将喝酒。他举起一杯酒,先请大家干了杯,说:“我要不是有你们的帮助,也不会有今天。但是你们哪里知道,做皇帝日子也不好过呀,还不如做个节度使快乐!”石守信等人听了十分惊奇,连忙问这是甚么缘故。宋太祖接着说:“这还不明白?皇帝这个位子,哪个不想坐呀?”石守信等人听出话中有话。大家着了慌,跪在地上说:“我们决不会对您三心二意。”宋太祖摇摇头说:“对你们几位难道我还信不过?只怕你们的部下将士当中,有人贪图富贵,把黄袍披在你们身上。你们想不干,能行吗?”石守信等人吓得满头大汗,连连磕(ke)头,第二天就说自己年老多病请求辞职。宋太祖马上同意了,给他们一大笔财物,收回了他们的兵权。历史上把这件事称为“杯酒释(shi,解除的意思)兵权”。

  After the downfall of the Tang Dynasty, China entered a chaotic period of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms. In the Latter Zhou Dynasty (951-960 AD), Emperor Shizong let Zhao Kuangyin control the military leadership. After Emperor Shizong died, his young son succeeded to the throne. Taking this chance, Zhao Kuangyin seized the imperial power and established the Song Dynasty. And Zhao Kuangyin was Emperor Taizu.

  Not long after Zhao Kuangyin came to the throne, two local military governors revolted against the central authority. It took Zhao Kuangyin a lot of energy to suppress the revolt, which upset him very much. Once he talked with Zhao Pu who had been with him for many years. He said that since the downfall of the Tang Dynasty there had changed many dynasties with endless wars. People had died numerously. What was the reason of all these? Zhao Pu said the reason was very simple. The chaotic situation in a country lay in scattering of the military power. The country would restore to peace as soon as the military power returned to the overall control of the central authority. Emperor Taizu agreed to this opinion, and it was by controlling the military leadership that he had seized the imperial power. In order to prevent the same thing from happening again, Emperor Taizu decided to take back military power from local authorities. In an autumn evening in 961, Emperor Taizu held a banquet in the imperial palace and invited Shi Shouxin and other senior generals. The emperor held up the cup and said, "But for your help, I wouldn't be what I'm like nowadays. But you don't know it's very difficult to be an emperor. In fact it's happier to be a local military governor than to be an emperor?"Shi Shouxin and the other generals were very surprised when they heard this and asked why. Emperor Taizu said, "It's quite obvious. Who does not want to be the emperor?"The generals got the underlying meaning of his words and became flustered. They knelt on the ground hurriedly and said, "We won't betray you at any time."Emperor Taizu shook his head and said, "I have confidence in all of you. But I'm afraid your subordinates may be ambitious and hanker after riches and honors. When they wrap the yellow gown (a symbol for emperor) around you and support you to be the emperor, can you refuse them?"The generals were so frightened that their faces were covered with beads of perspiration. The next day they asked to resign and the emperor agreed immediately. He gave them a large amount of money and took back their military power. This was called "relieving the generals of their commands at a feast"in history.

【来源:中国华文教育网】