中国华文教育网
五代、辽、宋、 夏、金、元 The Continued Development of Feudal Society and the Co-existence of Ethnic Regimes
2009年09月03日 14:44

  封建社会的继续发展和民族政权并立时期—— 五代、辽、宋、 夏、金、元

  五代、辽、宋、夏、金、元时期,从公元907年后梁建立开始,到1368年元朝灭亡为止,长达460多年。从朱温废掉唐朝皇帝,建立梁朝(史称后梁)以后的50多年里,中国北部先后出现后梁、后唐、后晋、后汉、后周五个朝代,史称五代。南方各地和北方的山西,还先后出现了前蜀、吴、闽、吴越、楚、南汉、南平、后蜀、南唐、北汉等十个割据政权,总称十国。

  960年,后周大将赵匡胤(yin)发动陈桥兵变,建立宋朝,都城在今天的开封,历史上称北宋。当时,中国还有辽、西夏等几个少数民族政权。1127年,女真贵族建立的金朝派军队攻入开封,北宋灭亡,继位的皇帝赵构逃往南方,后来在今天的杭州定都,史称南宋,出现了宋、金对峙的局面。1206年,成吉思汗建立了蒙古政权,并统一蒙古,蒙古先后灭西夏、金,并一直打到多瑙河流域。1260年,忽必烈继承汗位,后来定都于今天的北京。1271年,忽必烈正式定国号为元,元军于1276年攻占杭州,1279年消灭了南宋残余势力,统一了中国。1368年,朱元璋的军队攻占北京,元朝灭亡。

  这一时期,欧洲仍处于经济、文化发展的低潮。中国的经济、文化在世界上继续处于领先地位。北宋商品经济发达,科技水平高超。出现了世界上最早的纸币,火药兵器广泛应用,罗盘针(指南针)用于航海,发明了活字印刷。这些都极大地推动了世界历史的进步。元朝的疆域比过去的任何朝代都要辽阔,北京是当时闻名世界的大商业都市,意大利人马可·波罗在元世祖当朝时来到中国,居住了十几年,在他所着的《马可·波罗行纪》一书里描述了大都(今北京)的繁华景象。宋朝文学的主要成就是词,元朝戏剧发达,最著名的剧作家是关汉卿等。

  The Continued Development of Feudal Society and the Co-existence of Ethnic Regimes——The Five Dynasties, and the Liao, Song, Xia, Jin and Yuan Dynasties

  The period of the Five Dynasties (the Later Liang, Later Tang, Later Jin, Later Han and Later Zhou) and Ten Kingdoms (Wu, Southern Tang, Southern Ping, Chu, Former Shu, Later Shu, Min, Northern Han, Southern Han and Wu-Yue) started in 907, when the Later Liang Dynasty was established. It ended in 960, when Later Zhou fell and the Northern Song Dynasty was established.

  Northern Song was under threat for most of its existence from states set up by minority ethnic groups, such as Liao and Jin in the northeast and Western Xia in the northwest. In 1127, the Jin army captured Kaifeng, the Northern Song capital. Zhao Gou, the emperor, escaped to the south, and set up what is historically known as the Southern Song Dynasty, with Hangzhou as its capital. In 1206, Genghis Khan united the Mongolian tribes. The Mongols went on to build a huge empire. In 1260, Genghis Khan's grandson Kublai founded the Yuan Dynasty, with its capital in today's Beijing. The Yuan army seized Hangzhou in 1276, and in 1279 it crushed the remaining forces of the Southern Song Dynasty and united the whole of China. The Yuan Dynasty endured until 1368, when a rebel army led by Zhu Yuanzhang seized Beijing and established the Ming Dynasty.

  Trade flourished in the Northern Song period, as did science and technology. In China there appeared the earliest paper currency in the world, firearms were widely used, the compass assisted navigation, and moveable type was used to print large numbers of books. The territory of the Yuan Dynasty was broader than that of any of the preceding dynasties, and Beijing became a world-renowned commercial metropolis. An Italian merchant named Marco Polo came to China during the reign of Emperor Shizu (1271-1294 AD), and stayed for over 10 years. He described the prosperity of Dadu (today's Beijing) and other parts of China in his book The Travels of Marco Polo. The Song and Yuan dynasties were a golden age for literature. In the Yuan Dynasty, especially, great achievements were made in drama, Guan Hanqing being the most outstanding dramatist.

【来源:中国华文教育网】