中国华文教育网
大诗人李白、杜甫、白居易 The Great Poets Li Bai, Du Fu and Bai Juyi
2009年09月03日 14:45

  大诗人李白、杜甫、白居易

  唐朝是诗人辈出的时代,在为数众多的诗人中有三位大诗人,那就是李白、杜甫和白居易。

  李白小时候学习刻苦,青年时很想为国家做一番事业。但他不肯迎合世俗的性格,使他的希望一次又一次地破灭。于是他到处游历,饮酒写诗。他写了大量赞美祖国大好河山的诗篇。如他写长江的茫茫无际:“孤帆远影碧空尽,唯见长江天际流”;写黄河的一泻千里:“黄河之水天上来,奔流到海不复回”;写庐山瀑布的壮丽景象:“飞流直下三千尺,疑是银河落九天”;写静夜思乡之情:“床前明月光,疑是地上霜。举头望明月,低头思故乡”。李白的诗想象丰富,气势宏大,语言自然,是盛唐时代精神的典型代表。后人尊他为“诗仙”。

  杜甫生活在唐朝由强盛转向衰落的时代。和李白一样,年轻时杜甫到各地漫游,在洛阳和李白相遇,两人结下了深厚的友谊。他的一生充满了苦难,也没有实现救济天下的大志。杜甫有强烈的爱国情感,把自己和国家的命运联系在一起,十分同情人民的苦难,他用诗歌描写了一个复杂多变的时代,后人称他的诗为“诗史”。如“朱门酒肉臭,路有冻死骨”、“国破山河在,城春草木深”等都已成为千古传诵的名句。他的诗沉郁悲凉,语言精练,达到了很高的艺术水平,以后历代很多诗人都受他的影响。后人尊他为“诗圣”。

  白居易十几岁就写下了“离离原上草,一岁一枯荣。野火烧不尽,春风吹又生。”这样的名句。他生活在社会矛盾重重的中唐时期,提倡诗歌反映人民的生活。白居易的诗写得通俗明白,在当时流传很广。据说他写了诗常常先念给老婆婆听,再不断修改,直到老婆婆听懂。他的长诗如《长恨歌》、《琵琶行》写得十分优美动人。

  Poets emerged in large numbers in the Tang Dynasty, among whom the three most celebrated were Li Bai, Du Fu and Bai Juyi.

  Li Bai studied very hard and had an ambition to serve the country in his youth. But he became disillusioned with the orthodox ladder to success through officialdom. He devoted himself to traveling, drinking and writing poems. Many of his poems eulogize China's scenery. For example, he describes the vastness of the Yangtze as follows: "The lonely sail disappears in the distance, leaving the sky clear and blue/ There remains nothing but the Yangtze flowing to the horizon."Of the Yellow River he writes, "The waters of the Yellow River come down from Heaven/ Rushing to the sea, never to come back". He says of the Lushan waterfall: "Its torrent dashes down three thousand feet from high/ As if the Milky Way has fallen from the azure sky."Another poem of his describes his longing for his hometown in the dead of night: "The bright moonlight before my bed/ I thought was frost on the floor/ When I raised my eyes I saw the moon gleaming/ When I dropped my head, I thought of my hometown.?He was spoken of as the "poet immortal"by people of his time.

  Du Fu lived in the period when the Tang Dynasty had passed its days of glory and was heading toward decline. Like Li Bai, Du Fu traveled a lot in his youth. He met Li Bai in Luoyang, and they became good friends. Also like Li Bai, Du Fu's ambition was thwarted, and his life was full of suffering. His poems describe a sophisticated but changing society. For example, "The fragrance of meat and wine exudes from rich men's houses/While the poor die of cold and hunger in the streets"and "The country has fallen into the enemy's hands/ Yet the rivers and mountains are still here/ Spring has come to the city/ Where trees and grass grow exuberantly". These famous verses have been remembered and recited for centuries. Du Fu's poems are grave and melancholy. The succinct language he uses reaches a very high artistic level, and influenced numerous poets after him. He was called the "sage poet" by later generations.

  When he was just a teenager, Bai Juyi wrote famous verses like "The grass on the vast prairie lives and dies every year/ Fire cannot burn it all/ When the spring wind blows/ It will grow again". His poems are easy to understand, and were popular in his lifetime. It is said that after he wrote a poem he first read it to an old woman. He would amend it until the old woman could understand it. Of his profuse works, the most famous are the long narrative poems The Everlasting Regret and Song of a Pipa (Lute Player).

【来源:中国华文教育网】