中国华文教育网
三大石窟 The Three Famous Grottoes
2009年09月03日 14:45

  三大石窟

  大约公元一世纪前后,佛教从新疆传入内地。进入南北朝以后,统治者为宣扬佛教,在一些地方劈山削崖,开凿石窟(ku)。隋唐时期,石窟艺术又有很大发展。其中,著名的有山西大同的云冈石窟、河南洛阳的龙门石窟和甘肃敦煌的莫高窟。它们以藏有大量丰富多彩、千姿百态的佛教壁画与雕像塑像闻名于世,被称为艺术的宝库。

  山西的云冈石窟在北魏佛教艺术中最有名。它依山开凿,东西长1,000米,雕刻着成千上万大大小小的佛像,最大的佛像高达13.7米。

  龙门石窟里最大的洞窟是唐朝时开凿的,佛像的造型和服饰更加东方化,更加真实,体现了唐代社会人们的审美观念。

  莫高窟有1,000多个洞窟,又叫千佛洞,现有几百个洞窟,其中十分之六七的洞窟是隋唐时期开凿的。洞窟的四壁和顶上画满了彩色壁画。现存壁画总面积有45,000多平方米,内容表现了佛教故事,不少画面反映出隋唐时期社会的繁荣。莫高窟的塑像共有2,400多尊,隋唐时期占了近一半。这些塑像都富于艺术魅力。

  Buddhism spread into the hinterland of China by way of Xinjiang around the first century. In the Southern and Northern dynasties, grottoes were carved in cliffs to house statues of Buddha and sacred murals. In the Sui and Tang dynasties, grotto art made great strides. The three most famous groups of grottoes are the Yungang Grottoes in Datong, Shanxi Province, the Longmen Grottoes in Luoyang, Henan Province, and the Mogao Grottoes in Dunhuang, Gansu Province. They are world-famous for their great number of rich and colorful Buddhist frescos, sculptures and statues.

  The Yungang Grottoes are the most eminent among the Buddhist artistic works of the Northern Wei Dynasty. They are cut into the foot of a mountain, and stretch 1,000 m from east to west. They contain thousands of Buddhist sculptures of various sizes, among which the biggest one is 13.7 m high.

  The largest cave in the Longmen Grottoes was hollowed out during the Tang Dynasty. The Buddhist statues in these grottoes show the influence of the esthetic concepts of the people of India and Central Asia.

  The Mogao Grottoes at Dunhuang used to have over 1,000 caves, but nowadays there remain only a few hundred, of which 60-70% were made in the Sui and Tang dynasties. The walls and ceilings of the grottoes are covered with colored frescos, totaling more than 45,000 m2. The frescos depict Buddhist stories. Many of them reflect the prosperity of the Tang Dynasty. The Mogao Grottoes boast over 2,400 statues, almost half of which date from the Sui and Tang dynasties.

【来源:中国华文教育网】