中国华文教育网
王羲之 Wang Xizhi, the Saint of Calligraphy, and Gu Kaizhi, the Matchless Painter
2009年09月03日 14:58

  王羲之(约公元303~约361年),山东人,东晋大书法家,后人尊称他为“书圣”。

  王羲之年轻时跟卫夫人学习书法,后来又游历名山大川,观察、学习了前辈书法家们的碑刻。他练习书法十分刻苦,据说,他曾在浙江绍兴兰亭的池塘边日夜练习,竟使一池清水变成了黑色。在休息的时候,他还常常想着字的结构,手指就在衣服上画,时间一长,连衣服也写破了。最后,他终于形成了自己独特的风格。王羲之的行、草书对后人影响很大,他有名的碑帖有《兰亭集序》、《快雪时晴帖》等。唐太宗对王羲之的书法非常重视,特别选取了他书法作品中的1,000个字,编成《古千字文》一书,让学生们学习。

  顾恺之(約345~406年),東晉杰出畫家,后人把他和陸探微、張僧繇、吳道子並称为“画家四祖”。他曾遍游中国南方,为绘画创作积累了丰富的素材。

  顾恺之的人物画特别出色,他强调“以形写神”,主张通过人物的眼睛看见心灵的秘密。他曾在一座寺庙里作壁画,画完人物后不点眼珠,等到参观的时候,他当场点画眼珠,人像顿时精神焕发,仿佛真人一样。顾恺之的绘画真?早已失传,现在保存的有古人的摹本《女史箴图卷》、《洛神赋图卷》、《列女仁智图卷》。

  Wang Xizhi (c.303-c.361 AD) was born in today's Shandong Province. He was a great calligrapher of the Eastern Jin Dynasty, and was called by later generations the Saint of Calligraphy.

  Wang Xizhi studied calligraphy under the calligraphy master Madame Wei in his youth. Then he traveled widely to study tablet inscriptions executed by famous calligraphers of older generations. It is said that he used to practice calligraphy by the pond beside Lan (Orchid) Pavilion in Shaoxing, in today's Zhejiang Province, day and night, until the clear pond water turned black from his dipping his inky brush into it so many times. When he took a rest, he still thought of the structure of characters, and his fingers would trace them on his garments. As a result, his clothes soon became worn out. Wang Xizhi's unique style in both running hand and cursive script had a great influence on later generations of calligraphers. His famous rubbings of stone inscriptions include the Preface to Orchid Pavilion and the Kuaixueshiqing Rubbing. Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty admired Wang Xizhi's calligraphy, and chose 1,000 characters written by him, which he included in a book titled Ancient 1,000-Character Text to be used as a guide for students of calligraphy.

  Gu Kaizhi (c.345-406 AD) was an outstanding painter in the Eastern Jin Dynasty. Later generations grouped him together with Lu Tanwei, Zhang Sengyao and Wu Daozi, and called them the "Four Ancestors of Painting" Gu traveled all over south China accumulating rich materials for his paintings.

  Gu Kaizhi was especially good at figure painting. He maintained that a subject's heart could be read through looking deep into his or her eyes. He painted the eyes last, and viewers said that only then did the subject come to life. Gu Kaizhi's works have long been lost; what remain nowadays are only facsimiles of his Picture Scroll of Female Scholars, Picture Scroll of the Luoshui River Nymph and Picture Scroll of Virtuous Ladies.

【来源:中国华文教育网】