诸葛亮 Zhuge Liang
诸葛亮是一位杰出的政治家、军事家。 诸葛亮(公元181～234年)，字孔明，山东人。后来定居在湖北襄阳城西的隆中。在那儿，他阅读了大量书籍，增长了见识。 曹操统一北方后，准备南下统一中国。当时孙权占据长江中下游。刘备借驻荆州，他的势力最弱。他三顾茅庐，请诸葛亮帮助他。诸葛亮为刘备详细分析了天下的形势，提出了联合孙权抗击曹操的办法。刘备采取了诸葛亮的建议，在赤壁之战中获胜，势力由弱转强。 刘备称帝后不久，病死在白帝城，临死前将蜀国的大权都交给了诸葛亮。诸葛亮一心帮助刘备的儿子新国君刘禅。此时西南少数民族乘机起兵，公元225年，诸葛亮亲自带军南下，用计谋和平地解决了矛盾，并获得了当地少数民族首领孟获的信任。此后，诸葛亮就任用少数民族首领管理当地人，蜀政权与少数民族关系大大改善。同时，他还大力进行了内部的改革，任用有才能的人，注意农业生产和水利建设，加强部队纪律，使蜀国很快摆脱了危机。 后来，为了国家的统一，他六次北上攻打曹魏，但都失败了。在最后一次北伐中，他由于过度劳累，病死在军营中。
Zhuge Liang (181-234 AD) was an outstanding statesman and strategist. He was born in what is now Shandong Province, and later settled in Longzhong, to the west of Xiangyang, Hubei Province. Leading a hermit's existence, Zhuge Liang devoted himself to acquiring knowledge, and his reputation for wisdom spread far and wide.
Meanwhile, after uniting the north, Cao Cao prepared to march south. At that time, Sun Quan controlled the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze, and Liu Bei, the weakest of the three antagonists, was stationed in Jingzhou. Liu Bei went to visit Zhuge Liang three times to ask for the latter's assistance. Zhuge Liang analyzed the situation in the country in detail for Liu Bei, and recommended that he ally with Sun Quan against Cao Cao. Liu Bei adopted Zhuge Liang's suggestion and defeated Cao Cao in the Battle of the Red Cliff, his forces emerging as a much stronger power.
Not long after he proclaimed himself emperor, Liu Bei died of illness in Baidicheng. Before he died, he handed over the state power of Shu to Zhuge Liang, to be wielded on behalf of Liu Bei's son, Liu Chan. In 225, Zhuge Liang led an army south, and pacified the rebellious tribes there. His strategy was to govern through the local chieftains, which greatly improved relations between the Shu government and the minority peoples. Meanwhile, he also carried out far-reaching internal reforms--employing people with ability, stressing agricultural production and construction of irrigation works, and strengthening discipline in the army, which helped Shu quickly overcome a series of crises.
Later, Zhuge Liang launched six expeditions northward aimed at overthrowing Wei and unifying the country, but failed. On his last northern expedition, he died of illness.