中国华文教育网
三国、两晋、南北朝 The Division of China Once More and the Intermingling of Ethnic Groups
2009年09月03日 15:02

  封建国家的分裂和民族大融合时期—三国、两晋、南北朝

  三国、两晋、南北朝,又称魏晋南北朝,从公元220年曹丕称帝开始,到589年隋灭陈统一全国结束,共经历了360多年。

  220年曹丕建立魏国,221年刘备建立蜀国,222年孙权建立吴国,形成了魏、蜀、吴三国鼎立的局面。三国的都城分别在今天的洛阳、成都、南京。

  263年,魏国灭蜀国,265年魏国大臣司马炎夺取魏的政权称帝,建立晋朝,定都洛阳,历史上称西晋。280年,司马炎灭吴,结束三国分裂局面。西晋的统一局面十分短暂,316年被少数民族政权所灭,中国又陷入分裂割据局面。

  317年,晋王室的司马睿称帝,建立了东晋王朝,都城在今天的南京。同时,迁居到黄河流域的几个少数民族,先后建立了许多国家。北方处于长达130多年的分裂割据时期,历史上称为“十六国”时期。

  439年,少数民族建立的北魏政权统一了北方。后来,北魏孝文帝进行改革,规定少数民族学习汉族的制度、语言、服饰,促进了北方民族的大融合。后来北魏政权分裂为东魏和西魏,接?北齐取代东魏,北周取代西魏。历史上把上述北方五个朝代,总称为北朝。东晋以后,南方在420年至589年的170年里,经历了宋、齐、梁、陈四个朝代,都城都在今天的南京,历史上称之为南朝。南朝和北朝并存时期,史称南北朝时期。

  三国鼎立时期,政治、经济、外交各具特色,充满生机,涌现出曹操、诸葛亮等一批杰出的政治家。三国两晋南北朝时期,出现了许多著名的思想家、军事家、科学家、文学家、画家、书法家,还有许多对社会科学和自然科学产生积极影响的名著。这些科学、文化成就,至今仍是中国文化遗产中的瑰宝。

  三国两晋南北朝时期,欧洲强大的罗马帝国分裂,西罗马帝国灭亡,日耳曼人的王国在西欧建立,欧洲开始进入封建社会。

  The Division of China Once More and the Intermingling of Ethnic Groups - The Three Kingdoms, the Two Jin Dynasties and the Southern and Northern Dynasties

  The period of the Three Kingdoms, the Western and Eastern Jin dynasties and the Southern and Northern dynasties is also called the period of Wei, Jin and the Southern and Northern dynasties. It started in 220 AD, when Cao Pi claimed himself emperor of the Kingdom of Wei, and ended in 589, when the Sui Dynasty wiped out Chen and united the whole country once more.

  In 221, the year after the setting up of the Kingdom of Wei, Liu Bei established the Kingdom of Shu, and in 222 Sun Quan founded the Kingdom of Wu, which formed a situation of tripartite confrontation. The capitals of these three kingdoms were located in today's Luoyang, Chengdu and Nanjing, respectively.

  In 263, Wei wiped out Shu. In 265, Sima Yan, a Wei minister, seized the throne of Wei, declared founding of the Jin Dynasty and chose Luoyang as his capital. This is known as the Western Jin Dynasty. In 280, Sima Yan conquered Wu, ending the Three Kingdoms Period, but the Jin Dynasty itself was overrun by nomadic people in 316.

  In 317, Sima Rui, a descendant of the royal family of the Jin Dynasty, proclaimed himself emperor of the Eastern Jin Dynasty, whose capital was today's Nanjing. At the same time, several minority ethnic groups in the Yellow River basin also established many states. For more than 130 years, northern China was chaotically divided, in a period called the "era of the sixteen states".

  In 439, Northern Wei, established by a minority people, united the north. Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei effected reforms, decreeing the adoption of native Chinese institutions, language and costume. This resulted in a great intermixing of different ethnic groups in the north. Later, Northern Wei split into Eastern and Western Wei, and then Northern Qi replaced Eastern Wei, and Northern Zhou replaced Western Wei. The above five northern dynasties are known as the Northern Dynasties. During the 170 years from 420 to 589 AD, following the fall of Eastern Jin, there appeared four dynasties in succession, namely, Song, Qi, Liang and Chen, whose capitals were all situated in today's Nanjing. These four dynasties are called the Southern dynasties. The period when the Southern dynasties and the Northern Dynasties co-existed is called the Southern and Northern dynasties.

  During the Three Kingdoms Period there emerged a great number of outstanding statesmen and generals, the foremost of whom were Cao Cao and Zhuge Liang. And the two Jin dynasties and the Northern and Southern dynasties produced many famous strategists, scientists, literary figures, painters and calligraphers. Also, a large number of famous works were produced which had a positive influence on the development of the social and natural sciences. These scientific and cultural achievements are gems of the Chinese cultural heritage.

【来源:中国华文教育网】