中国华文教育网
丝绸之路 The Silk Road
2009年09月03日 15:06

  丝绸之路

  汉代,中国通过“丝绸之路”与域外各民族建立了广泛的交往。这条线路的开辟,首先要归功于张骞(qian)。

  汉武帝时,北方匈奴常常袭扰汉朝边境,还控制了当时西域的几十个小国。公元前138年,汉武帝派张骞带100多人出使西域,联络大月氏(zh1),准备左右夹攻匈奴。没想到刚出边境,张骞就被匈奴抓住了。在被扣留期间,他学会了匈奴语,掌握了匈奴的地形。10多年后,张骞逃了出来,找到了已经西迁的大月氏。张骞在当地呆了一年,熟悉了西域的环境。后来,见大月氏国王不想报仇,他只好回国。当年与他同去的100多人,只剩下两人回到长安。

  公元前119年,汉武帝再次派张骞出使西域,这次随行的有300多人,带去了上万头牛羊和货物。他们访问了许多国家,这些国家也派了使臣带?礼物回访。从此以后,汉朝和西域的往来越来越多。后来,汉还在今天新疆地区设了西域都护府,归中央政府管理。

  张骞出使西域后,中西交流的“丝绸之路”开辟了。“丝绸之路”东起长安,向西到地中海东岸,转至罗马帝国。汉朝的商队,运?大量的丝织品同波斯人、印度人、希腊人交换商品,同时带回了外国的核桃、葡萄、胡萝卜等。此后的许多世纪,以丝绸贸易为主的中西交流大多经过“丝绸之路”进行。

  The Silk Road

  In the Han Dynasty, China established wide contacts with various nationalities and kingdoms outside its domain through the Silk Road. Zhang Qian pioneered this route.

  In 138 BC, Emperor Wudi sent Zhang Qian with a delegation of over 100 people on a diplomatic mission to the Western Regions to seek allies against the Huns. Zhang Qian was captured by the Huns just as he left Han territory, and was held prisoner for a dozen years. During this period, he learned the Hun language, and got to know well the geography of their territory. Escaping from the Hun encampment, Zhang Qian made his way back to Chang'an, with only one companion left of the 100 who had set out.

  In 119 BC, Emperor Wudi sent Zhang Qian on a second diplomatic mission to the Western Regions. This time, he had an entourage of 300, with thousands of head of cattle and sheep and a large amount of gifts. They visited many countries, and these countries sent envoys with tribute to the Han court. From then on, the Han Dynasty had frequent contacts with the countries in the Western Regions, later setting up a Western Regions Frontier Command in today's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, which was under the administration of the central government.

  The Silk Road was another outcome of Zhang Qian's journeys. The Silk Road started from Chang'an in the east and stretched westward to reach the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the Roman Empire. Trade caravans from China carrying large amounts of silk fabrics exchanged merchandise with traders from Persia, India and Greece, and brought home walnuts, grapes and carrots from abroad. In the following several centuries, Sino-Western exchanges mainly characterized by the silk trade were mostly carried on through the Silk Road.

【来源:中国华文教育网】