中国华文教育网
昭君出塞 Zhaojun Goes Beyond the Great Wall as a Bride
2009年09月03日 15:06

  昭君出塞

  在中国古代,汉族统治者与少数民族首领之间,有时为一定的政治目的而通婚,被称为“和亲”。秦汉之际,中国北方古老的游牧民族匈奴势力强大,多次南下威胁中原。汉初国力不强,无法与匈奴对抗,便也采取了和亲政策,求得相对的和平。随?汉朝经济、军事力量的增强,反击匈奴的条件成熟了。到汉武帝时,便放弃了和亲政策,对匈奴采取了攻势。从此,西汉与匈奴80年没和亲。

  汉宣帝时,匈奴的势力衰落了。此時,匈奴內部出現了兩個單于(匈奴君主的稱號)對抗的局面。其中呼韓邪單于想借助漢朝的支持,統一整個匈奴,於是決心歸依漢朝。他两次到长安见汉朝皇帝,受到隆重的欢迎,他也表示愿协助汉朝政府保护边境。公元前36年,汉朝派兵攻打了另一个单于,呼韩邪统一匈奴。公元前33年,他第三次到长安,向当时的汉元帝提出,愿意当汉家的女婿,再恢复和亲。元帝立即答应,并在宫女中进行选拔。有一个叫王昭君的宫女主动提出要去和亲。王昭君又美丽又聪明,很受呼韩邪的喜爱,被封为“宁胡阏氏”,意思是将与汉朝建立和平友好的关系。

  王昭君出塞以后,生活在匈奴游牧地区几十年。在她的影响下,她的子女及周围的人,都努力维护匈奴与汉的友好关系,使北方边境出现了少有的安定景象。

  Zhaojun Goes Beyond the Great Wall as a Bride

  In ancient China, the ruling families of the Han people sometimes intermarried with rulers of minority ethnic groups in the border areas for political purposes. This was called heqin (peace through marriage ties). During the Qin and Han dynasties, the Hun nomads became a threat to the people of the Central Plains, launching numerous southward invasions. In its early years, the Han Dynasty was not strong enough to repel the Huns, so the Han rulers resorted to the policy of heqin to pacify the borders. With the strengthening of the economic and military forces of the Han Dynasty, the policy of appeasement was replaced by one of military pacification. By the end of the reign of Emperor Wudi, the Han Dynasty had not intermarried with the Huns for 80 years.

  During the reign of Emperor Xuandi (74 -49 BC), the power of the Huns had declined drastically. At that time, two men contended for the title of khan, or paramount chief, of the Huns. One of them, Huhanye by name, sought the help of the Han Dynasty. He visited Chang'an twice, and pledged his allegiance to the emperor. He also expressed his willingness to help the Han Dynasty guard the border areas. In 36 BC, Emperor Yuandi, Emperor Xuandi's successor, dispatched troops, which ensured Huhanye's victory. In 33 BC, Huhanye went to Chang'an for the third time, and offered to restore the heqin system by marrying a Han princess. Emperor Yuandi agreed immediately, and set about selecting a woman from his palace to marry Huhanye. A palace maid named Wang Zhaojun volunteered to marry Huhanye. The latter gave her the title "ninghuyanzhi" which signified that the Huns would build peaceful and friendly relations with the Han Dynasty.

  Wang Zhaojun lived in the Huns?encampments for many years. Under her influence, her children and the people around her all did their best to maintain the good relations between the Huns and the Han Dynasty, which brought a rare period of stability to the northern border areas.

【来源:中国华文教育网】