中国华文教育网
汉武帝 Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty
2009年09月03日 15:08

  汉武帝

  汉武帝刘彻,公元前140年至公元前87年在位。他当政期间,中国历史上出现了长达50年的盛世景象。

  强化中央集权制度 汉初,刘邦分封一些同姓的子弟到全国各地做王,想借此确保刘家的天下。受封的诸侯王的权力很大,他们可以在辖区内拥有军队,征收租税,铸造钱币,任免官吏。后来诸侯王的势力过大,严重影响中央的统治。

  汉武帝当政后,准许诸侯王把自己的封地再分给子弟,建立侯国,这就是“推恩令”,一个王国分出许多小侯国,直属的领地就小了,再没有力量对抗中央。后来,汉武帝又陆续夺去大批王、侯的爵位。这样,经过长期斗争,王国对中央的威胁终于解除了,中央集权制度得到加强。

  罢黜百家,独尊儒术 汉武帝时期,儒生董仲舒为了适应中央集权政治的需要,对儒家学说进行了发挥。

  第一,宣扬天是万物的主宰,皇帝是天的儿子,即天子,代表天统治人民。因此,全国人民都要服从皇帝的统治,诸侯王也要听命于皇帝,这叫做“大一统”。

  第二,提出了“罢黜(chu)百家,独尊儒术”的建议。主张只提倡儒家学说,其它各家学说,都禁止传播,以实行思想上的统一,从而巩固政治上的统一。

  汉武帝采纳了董仲舒的学说,汉朝政府里就有许多信奉儒家思想的人做了大官。儒家思想逐渐成为封建社会的统治思想。

  Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty

  Reigned from 140 BC to 87 BC, Liu Che was known as the Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty. This half century was a period in which Chinese civilization flourished.

  Soon after he founded the Han Dynasty, Liu Bang granted territories in strategic parts of the country to nobles of his clan, with the title "king". The kings had their own armies, levied their own taxes, issued currency, and appointed and removed officials within their own jurisdictions.

  When Emperor Wudi came to the throne, fearing that the kings were too powerful, he instituted a system whereby the descendants of the kings inherited parts of the kingdoms as marquisates. Thus the kingdoms quickly became divided into smaller and weaker territories, and came under the direct control of the imperial court. Later, Emperor Wudi went even further, depriving many nobles of their titles, and strengthening central rule.

  It was during the reign of Emperor Wudi that the Confucian scholar Dong Zhongshu adapted Confucian theory to the needs of centralized politics.

  First, he stressed that Heaven dominated everything in the world. The emperor was the Son of Heaven, and he ruled over the people on behalf of Heaven. Therefore, all people, including kings, should abide by the will of the emperor, a concept which was called "grand unification".

  Second, Dong Zhongshu advocated suppressing the "Hundred Schools of Thought" and making Confucianism the state ideology. This, he argued, would unify the people's minds, which in turn would consolidate political unity.

  Emperor Wudi was impressed by Dong Zhongshu's theories, and filled his administration with Confucian scholars. Confucianism thereby got a foothold as the dominant ideology in China's feudal society.

【来源:中国华文教育网】