中国华文教育网
封建大一统时期—秦、汉 The Period of Great Feudal Unity - the Qin and Han Dynasties
2009年09月03日 15:27

  封建大一统时期—秦、汉

  秦汉时期,开始于公元前221年,结束于公元220年。秦朝是中国历史上第一个封建大一统的时代,也是统一的多民族国家的奠基时期。秦汉王朝开创的许多制度,为以后历代封建统治者所沿用。

  秦朝建立于公元前221年,秦始皇采取了一系列巩固统一的措施,建立了一整套的统治制度,中国成为第一个统一的封建中央集权的多民族国家。但是,秦始皇和他的继承者对农民空前残暴的压迫和剥削,导致秦的统治在公元前207年被农民起义推翻。

  汉朝包括西汉与东汉两个朝代,公元前202年,汉高祖刘邦建立汉朝,定都长安(今西安),历史上称之为西汉。西汉末年,王莽夺取西汉政权。公元25年,西汉贵族刘秀借农民起义之机,恢复汉朝,定都于今天的洛阳,历史上称之为东汉。东汉末年,政权被农民大起义瓦解,最后结束于220年。两汉时期长达400多年,这个时期社会发展有很多成就,有些成就具有深远的历史影响。今天的汉族、汉字、汉语、汉文化等名称都与汉朝有关。秦汉时期,生产发展迅速,经济繁荣,国防巩固,科技文化事业发达,在医学、天文学、地质学等方面都取得了突出的成就,还涌现出许多著名的政治家、思想家、军事家、科学家、史学家、文学家。特别是造纸术的发明和改进,对世界文化事业的发展作出了巨大贡献。

  秦汉时期,从地中海、西亚到太平洋东岸,雄踞?4个帝国,其中汉朝与罗马的历史地位尤其重要。随?丝绸之路的开辟,中国辉煌灿烂的文化开始影响世界,当时世界上优秀的文明成就也逐渐融入中国的传统文化之中。

  The Period of Great Feudal Unity - the Qin and Han Dynasties

  The period of the Qin and Han dynasties began in 221 BC and ended in 220 AD. The Qin Dynasty was the first feudal dynasty to rule the whole of China, and it laid the foundation of a united multi-ethnic country. Many institutions initiated in the Qin and Han dynasties were inherited continuously by later dynasties.

  The Qin Dynasty was established in 221 BC by Emperor Qinshihuang, who adopted a series of reforms such as unifying the currencies and writing systems of the previous states. However, the heavy-handed methods of Qinshihuang and his successor led to the overthrow of the Qin Dynasty in 207 BC by a peasant uprising.

  In 202 BC, Liu Bang established the Han Dynasty, choosing Chang'an (today's Xi'an) as his capital. In 9 AD, Wang Mang staged a coup, and set up the short-lived Xin Dynasty. The Han Dynasty was restored in 25 AD by Liu Xiu, who moved the capital to the city known today as Luoyang. Subsequently, this period became known to historians as the Eastern Han Dynasty, and the previous one as the Western Han Dynasty. In 220, the Eastern Han Dynasty was overthrown by a peasant uprising. In its over 400 years of existence, the Han Dynasty made achievements in agriculture, defense, science and technology, and culture. Notable among these achievements was the invention of the technique of papermaking, which was a great contribution to world civilization.

  During the period of the Qin and Han dynasties, the Silk Road started to connect China with the Roman Empire and the Western world as a whole. With the opening of the Silk Road, China's brilliant culture began to influence the whole world, and the splendid cultural accomplishments of other countries gradually merged into traditional Chinese culture.

【来源:中国华文教育网】