中国华文教育网
大教育家孔子 Confucius, the Great Educator
2009年09月03日 15:28

  大教育家孔子

  孔子(公元前551年—公元前479年),名丘,字仲尼,春秋末期鲁国陬邑(zouy1,今山东曲阜东南)人,是儒家学派的创始人。

  孔子是个大思想家,首先,他提出“仁”的学说,即要求统治者能够体贴民情,爱惜民力,不要过度压迫剥削人民。其次,他主张以德治民,反对暴政。

  孔子又是个大教育家,在那个时代,只有贵族子弟才能够受教育。孔子提倡“有教无类”,他收学生,不论他们地位贵贱,都一律平等地进行教育。孔子兴办私学,打破了官府对文化教育的垄断。据说孔子教过的学生有3,000多人,其中著名的有72人。孔子主张“因材施教”,对不同的学生,进行不同的教育。他教育学生:学习知识要经常复习,“温故而知新”;学习态度要老实,“知之为知之,不知为不知”;还要求把学习和思考结合起来。

  后来,孔子的学生们将孔子的思想言行记录下来,汇编成《论语》一书,《论语》成为儒家经典之一。孔子的学说成为中国2,000多年封建文化的正统。

  Confucius, the Great Educator

  Confucius (551 - 479 BC) was surnamed Kong and his given name was Qiu, and he styled himself Zhongni. He was born in Zouyi in the State of Lu (in the southeast of today's Qufu, Shandong Province) in the late Spring and Autumn Period. He was the founder of Confucianism.

  Confucius was one of the great thinkers that emerged at this time. He advanced the theory of benevolence (ren) on the part of rulers toward their people, stressing that the wealth they produced should not be squandered and political rule should be based on virtue, not force.

  Confucius was also a great educator. In his time, only children from aristocratic families could receive education. Confucius advocated "treating everyone the same in educating people". He taught his pupils without discrimination, no matter what their social status was. Confucius established private schools and broke the government's monopoly over education. It is said that Confucius taught as many as 3,000 pupils, among whom 72 became very famous. Confucius proposed "teaching students according to their aptitude". He said one should be honest in learning and not pretend to know what one did not know. He told his pupils to review what they had learned regularly during their study, because "new knowledge can be gained by reviewing old knowledge", he also told his pupils to combine study with thinking.

  Confucius' disciples recorded his words and deeds in The Analects of Confucius, which is one of the classics of the Confucian school. Confucius?theories formed the orthodox ruling ideology in China for over 2,000 years.

  六经

  即儒家的六部经典:《易》、《诗》、《礼》、《乐》、《尚书》、《春秋》,它们是由孔子亲自整理编订的,是孔子对中国古代文化发展作出的不朽贡献。

  The Six Classics

  The Six Classics are six ancient works considered central to the Confucian canon, namely, The Book of Changes, The Book of Songs, The Book of Rites, The Book of Music, The Book of History and The Spring and Autumn Annals. These works are said to have been compiled and edited by Confucius himself. They are immortal contributions Confucius made to the development of ancient Chinese culture.

【来源:中国华文教育网】