中国华文教育网
哈雷彗星和《甘石星经》 Halley's Comet and the Ganshi Classic of the Constellations
2009年09月03日 15:29

  哈雷彗星和《甘石星经》

  中国人很早就注意观察天象。古书上关于夏朝时流星雨和日食的记载,是世界天文史上最早的记录。春秋战国时期,天文学已取得了相当高的成就。鲁国的天文学家在对天象的观测中,观测到37次日食,其中33次已被证明是可靠的。现在世人通称的哈雷彗星,早在公元前613年就被加载鲁国史书《春秋》中,这是世界上关于哈雷彗星的最早的记录。

  这一时期还出现了天文学专着,齐国人甘德着《天文星占》八卷,魏国人石申写了《天文》八卷,后人将它们合为一部,称《甘石星经》,这是世界上现存最早的天文学著作。书中记录了水、木、金、火、土五大行星的运行情况,以及它们的出没规律。书中还记录了800个?星的名字,有121个的位置现在已经被测定。甘德还用肉眼发现了木星的卫星,比意大利天文学家伽利略在1609年用天文望远镜发现该星早2,000多年。石申则发现日月食是天体相互掩盖的现象,这在当时也是难能可贵的。为了纪念石申,月球上有一座环形山就是用他的名字命名的。

  Halley's Comet and the Ganshi Classic of the Constellations

  The Chinese people have paid great attention to astronomical phenomena since very early times. Meteor showers and solar eclipses which occurred as far back as in the Xia Dynasty are recorded in ancient books, and are thought to be the earliest astronomical accounts. By the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods, astronomy had reached quite a high level of sophistication. Astronomers of the State of Lu observed 37 solar eclipses, among which 33 have been proved accurate. The earliest record of an appearance by Halley's Comet (613 BC) is contained in the chronicle of Lu known as the Spring and Autumn Annals.

  During this period there appeared specialized works on astronomy. Gan De of the State of Qi wrote a work titled Astronomy and Astrology in eight volumes, and Shi Shen of the State of Wei wrote his Astronomy, also in eight volumes. Later, the two works were combined as the Ganshi Classic of the Constellations. The earliest astronomical work extant in the world, it records the motions of Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Mars and Saturn. There also recorded the names of 800 stars, the positions of 121 of which have been ascertained. Gan De discovered Jupiter's moon with the naked eye, 2,000 years earlier than the Italian astronomer Galileo, who discovered it with an astronomical telescope in 1609. Shi Shen discovered the reason for solar and lunar eclipses. A crater on the moon has been named after Shi Shen.

【来源:中国华文教育网】