中国华文教育网
武王伐纣 King Wu Attacks King Zhou
2009年09月03日 15:40

  武王伐纣

  商朝后期政治混乱,最后一个王是纣(zhou)王。他只知道自己享乐,根本不管人民的死活,是个残暴的君主。 商纣王在首都北边的沙丘养?各地送来的珍禽异兽,在首都的南边修建鹿台,用来存放无数的珍宝财物。他还造了“酒池”,里面装满了美酒;还造了“肉林”,里面挂满了香喷喷的熟肉。纣王每天和妃子、大臣们在“酒池”、“肉林”中嬉戏游乐。他修建的巨大仓库里,装满了从全国各地掠夺来的粮食。他还发明了很多残酷的刑罚,其中一种叫“炮烙(paoluo)之刑”,就是把涂满膏脂的铜柱放在燃烧的炭火上,强迫犯人在上面行走,犯人站不住,就掉在炭火中活活烧死。 商纣王不听任何人的劝说,他的叔叔比干因为向他提意见而被他挖心处死。另一个大臣劝他说,这样将会有亡国丧命的危险。商纣王却回答说,他的性命是有上天保佑的,谁也不能把他怎么样! 那时,渭水流域的周国,迅速发展。周原来是商的属国。周文王一心要治理好自己的国家,重视农业生产,待人宽厚,重用人才。吕尚(俗称姜太公)就是他发现的。吕尚帮助周文王整顿政治和军事,对内发展生产,使人民安居乐业;对外征服各部族,不断扩大疆土,周的势力逐步强大。 公元前11世纪中期,周文王死后,他的儿子即位,这就是周武王。周武王得到吕尚和叔旦(即周公旦)的帮助,国家兴盛。这时候,商朝的统治更加腐朽。周武王联合西方和南方的部落,进攻商纣王。双方在牧野(今河南省境内)大战。商朝的军队中大部分是奴隶,他们平时恨透了纣王,不但不抵抗,还纷纷起义,引导周军攻入商朝首都。商纣王自焚而死。商朝终于灭亡。周武王得到了各个部落和各个小国家的拥护,于公元前1046年建立了周朝,定都镐(hao)京(今陕西西安西南),历史上称为西周。

  King Wu Attacks King Zhou

  The last monarch of the Shang Dynasty, King Zhou, is said to have been a cruel despot who neglected state affairs and abandoned himself to sensuous pleasures. In the meantime, a vassal kingdom of the Shang Dynasty called Zhou (a different Chinese character from that used as the name of King Zhou) was growing powerful in the Weishui River valley. The king of Zhou, named Wen, was an able and enlightened administrator who valued agriculture and made good use of talented people. Assisted by his able prime minister, Lu Shang (also known as Jiang Taigong), King Wen made his realm rich and powerful. In the mid-11th century BC, King Wen died, and his son came to the throne as King Wu. The new ruler, assisted by Lu Shang and his own uncle Duke Zhou, led an alliance of tribes against the tottering Shang Dynasty, and toppled King Zhou at the Battle of Muye (in today's Henan Province). The victory was aided by a revolt of the Shang army, which consisted mostly of conscripted slaves. King Zhou burnt himself to death, and his throne was taken by King Wu. King Wu founded the Zhou Dynasty in 1046 BC, and located his capital in Hao (southwest of today's Xi'an, Shaanxi Province). This era, until the capital was moved eastward to Luoyang in 770 BC, is known as that of the Western Zhou Dynasty.

【来源:中国华文教育网】